Liver Metastasis: Biology and Clinical Management

Metastatic cancer cells. Translation of "cancer metastazic" in Romanian

Floreasca Emmergency Clinical Hospital REZUMAT Aceasta lucrare este o trecere in revista a datelor din literatura privind bazele moleculare cu metastatic cancer cells metastatic cancer cells expresia anormala a proteinelor matricei osoase, osteocalcina si sialoproteina, de catre celulele epiteliale ale prostatei maligne. Aceste date au relevat faptul ca activitatile de promoter ale osteocalcinei umane si sialoproteinei in linia celulara canceroasa, provenind din cancerul de prostata, androgen —independenta LNCaP, CB, au fost marcant crescute de la 7 la 12 ori intr-o maniera dependenta de concentratie de catre mediul conditionat colectat din cancerul de prostata si celulele strome b.

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Analiza osteocalcinei si regiunile promoter identificate ale sialoproteinei, elemente responsive AMP ciclic cAMP - CRE arata ca determinanti critici pentru expresia genelor osteocalcinei si sialoproteinei osoase in celulele canceroase ale prostatei. Concluzii: Expresia osteocalcinei si sialoproteinei osoase este coordonata si reglata prin intermediul semnalizarii cAMP dependent PKA care poate defini bazele moleculare ale osteomimetismului, manifestat de catre celulele canceroase ale prostatei.

Cuvinte-cheie: osteocalcina, sialoproteina, cancer de prostata, matrice osoasa ABSTRACT This paper is a review of literature data on molecular basis regarding the abnormal expression of noncollagenous bone matrix proteins Osteocalcin and sialoprotein by malignant prostate epithelial cells.

These data revealed that a human osteocalcin and bone sialoprotein promoter activities in an androgen-independent metastatic cancer cells cancer cell line of LNCaP lineage, Metastatic cancer cells, were markedly metastatic cancer cells 7- to fold in a concentration-dependent manner by conditioned medium collected from prostate cancer and bone stromal cells. Conclusion: Osteocalcin and bone sialoprotein expression is coordinated and regulated through cAMPdependent PKA signaling, which may define the molecular basis of the osteomimicry exhibited by prostate cancer cells.

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Keywords: osteocalcin, sialoprotein, prostate cancer, bone matrix, metastasis Introduction Despite the prevalence of prostate cancer metastasis to the skeleton, the molecular mechanisms of bone tropism are poorly understood.

Previous studies suggest that prostate cancer cell adhesion, extravasation, migration, and interaction with bone cells are critical determinants that govern prostate cancer metastatic cancer cells colonization [1]. Reports using clinical prostate cancer metastasis specimens [2] and experimental cell and animal models [3] found the bone-specific proteins osteocalcin and bone sialoprotein to be expressed in a heterogeneous manner by human prostate cancer specimens.

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The authors have proposed that prostate cancer cells acquire osteomimetic or bonelike metastatic cancer cells to improve their adhesion, proliferation, and survival in bone [4]. This communication delineates the molecular mechanisms underlying the induction of human osteocalcin and bone sialoprotein promoter activities metastatic cancer cells their endogenous gene expression in the bone microenvironment by factors secreted from prostate cancer and bone stromal cells.

Because of the potential importance of osteomimicry in metastatic cancer cells cancer cell adhesion, invasion, and metastasis, the authors have designed studies to define how the expression of bone-specific proteins in prostate cancer cells is regulated.

The authors chose to study osteocalcin and bone sialoprotein because of the prevalence of expression of these genes by prostate cancer cell lines [5] and in clinical prostate cancer specimens[6].

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Their data showed that osteocalcin and bone sialoprotein expression is stimulated in a selective manner in human prostate cancer but not in bone stromal cell lines. The selective nature of soluble factors metastatic cancer cells as paracrine mediators in stimulating osteocalcin and bone sialoprotein expression in prostate cancer cell lines agrees with their immunohistochemical staining patterns that are generally heterogeneous [6].

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The authors also observed that conditioned medium stimulated human osteocalcin and bone sialoprotein promoter activities in a dose-dependent manner and that these increased promoter reporter activities corresponded with the enhancement of the steady-state levels of endogenous osteocalcin and bone sialoprotein mRNA expressed in LNCaP and CB cells.

These results support the idea that osteocalcin and bone sialoprotein, once induced in prostate cancer cells, could facilitate the formation of hydroxyapatite complexes, leading to altered biological functions of prostate cancer cells i.

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This is supported by the lack of increased osteocalcin expression in these prostate cancer and osteosarcoma cell lines after exposure to ARCaP conditioned medium. Further, nuclear extracts from prostate cancer and bone cells that failed to respond to PKA pathway activators showed a lack of CRE binding and metastatic cancer cells activity.

In sharp contrast, however, an increased complex formation between cis-element CRE and trans-acting factor CREB and an expected supershift of this complex were observed in the responsive CB cells on the addition of anti-CREB antibody tion is likely to account for increased human osteocalcin metastatic cancer cells activity and enhanced endogenous osteocalcin mRNA expression in human prostate cancer cells in response to factor s from the tumor cell microenvironment.

A similar mechanism regulating human bone sialoprotein promoter activity and mRNA expression was also observed in LNCaP and CB cells after exposure to ARCaP conditioned medium, a result supported by additional studies using interfering pharmacologic agents that either stimulated db cAMP and forskolin or repressed H cAMP accumulation in target cells.

Our results show for the first time that conditioned medium harvested metastatic cancer cells prostate cancer and bone stromal cells metastatic cancer cells osteocalcin and bone sialoprotein expression primarily through a cAMP-dependent PKA signaling pathway in LNCaP and CB human prostate cancer cells.

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metastatic cancer cells This stimulation by conditioned medium lends further support to the observation that osteocalcin and bone sialoprotein are prevalently expressed by clinically localized and bone and lymph node metastatic human prostate cancer tissue specimens and can be the molecular basis of osteomimicry during disease progression. Several growth factors fibroblast growth factor-2 or basic fibroblast growth factor, insulin-like growth factor-I, and transforming growth factor-h and hormones glucocorticoids, estrogens,parathyroid hormone, metastatic cancer cells parathyroid hormone—related peptide have been shown to regulate osteocalcin and bone sialoprotein expression in rodent, chick, or human cell lines.

Boudreaux and Towler[8] showed the induction of osteocalcin promoter activity by a growth factor, fibroblast growth factor-2,in MC3T3-E1 cells.

Boguslawski et al. A similar activation of bone sialoprotein promoter activity was documented for fibroblast growth factor-2 [10] parathyroid hormone,and prostaglandin E2 in which bone sialoprotein transcription was stimulated through a PKA-dependent pathway, although a protein kinase C—mediated pathway may play a minor role.

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The present study differs from previous reports in two important aspects. First, none of the earlier observations showed conclusively at the molecular level that the involvement solitary intraductal papillomas CRE elements within osteocalcin and bone sialoprotein promoters, as defined in the present study, conferred soluble factor—induced osteocalcin and bone sialoprotein expression by cancer or normal cells.

Our results emphasized the roles of CRE ciselements in osteomimicry by prostate cancer cells.

Liver Metastasis: Biology and Clinical Management

Second, none of the previously reported factors tested in our assay system activated human osteocalcin and bone sialoprotein promoter activities in CB cells data not shown. These important distinctions suggest the following possibilities. Because osteocalcin and bone sialoprotein expression in LNCaP, C, and CB cells are responsive to soluble factors and osteocalcin and bone sialoprotein are prevalently expressed in both primary and metastatic human prostate cancer tissues, we suggest that LNCaP and its derivative cell lines are superior models for the study of human prostate cancer progression.

This conclusion is also supported by a large body of literature devoted to the study of the molecular mechanisms of androgen receptor and androgen-independent metastatic [11].

Physiology of Bioelectricity in Development, Tissue Regeneration and Cancer

To further understand differences in responsiveness among prostate cancer and bone stromal cells to soluble factors in conditioned medium, it must isolate and characterize the responsible factors and evaluate cell surface or intracellular receptors coupling to cell signaling systems in prostate cancer and bone cells. In summary, authors data metastatic cancer cells human prostate cancer cell lines show dramatic cell background—dependent differences in responsiveness to ARCaP conditioned medium and the involvement of the cAMP-PKA signaling cascade in the induction of osteocalcin and bone sialoprotein gene expression in LNCaP and CB cells.

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These results could have significant implications for neck papilloma treatment osteomimicry and targeting it therapeutically in human prostate cancer. References 1. Chung LW. Prostate carcinoma bone-stroma interaction and its biologic and therapeutic implications.

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Cancer ;—8. Differential expression of osteopontin and bone sialoprotein in bone metastasis of breast and prostate carcinoma.

Clin Exp Metastasis ;— Regulation of human osteocalcin promoter in hormone-independent human prostate cancer cells.

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